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Convergence thesis sociology



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thesis on pierre elliott trudeau - The convergence theory is the one which postulates that all the societies as they move from the early industrial development to complete industrialization tend to move towards a condition of similarity in terms of the general societal and technological norms. Nov 01,  · The convergence theory in sociology would say that certain crowds are violent because the people who formed the crowd wanted to promote violence in the first place. Sep 30,  · Convergence theory presumes that as nations move from the early stages of industrialization toward becoming fully industrialized, they begin to resemble other industrialized societies in terms of societal norms and technology. The characteristics of . make analysis term paper

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research paper on environmental pollution - all in need. Convergence Thesis In SociologyIn its Convergence Thesis In Sociologyactivity, is focused primarily on excellent quality of services provided in essay help, as well as in term papers writing, dissertations writing, research papers and other/10(). Jan 01,  · For the criticism of the convergence thesis see Goldthorpe,, “Theories of Industrial Society.” For further theoretical developments concerning the convergence thesis and its criticism see Baum, R. C., “ Beyond Convergence: Toward Theoretical Relevance in Quantitative Modernization Research,” Sociological Inquiry, 44, 4 (), – Cited by: Our customers are pleased with different discounts for any type of the paper. For example, a client, who cooperate with our Convergence Thesis In Sociology service for more than a year can get great discount for to do my homework paper or thesis statement/10(). biography book report wanted poster

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chinese essay form 4 - Generally, a thesis is about 60 to pages, but there is no minimum or maximum. Senior Sociology concentrators are not required to write a thesis. A thesis is required for those students who wish to graduate with honors in Sociology. Why Should I Write A Senior Thesis? Convergence Thesis In Sociology find yourself in need of help in getting your homework done you may find professional writing Convergence Thesis In Sociology companies such as quite helpful. This is a great opportunity Convergence Thesis In Sociology to /10(). convergence — thesis Dictionary of sociology. convergence — (n.) , from CONVERGE (Cf. converge) + ENCE (Cf. ence). Related: Convergent. Convergent evolution was in use among biologists by Etymology dictionary. convergence — n. pl. convergencies [kən vʉr′jəns] n. [. dissertation written in one month

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help with writing a retirement speech - convergence thesis See INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY. Source for information on convergence thesis: A Dictionary of Sociology dictionary. Jan 15,  · The earliest and simplest version of this thesis is that due to Lipset and Zetterberg, which holds that the actually observed – or, as we would wish to say, the absolute – rates of mobility between broadly defined classes tend to be ‘much the same’ from one western industrial society to another (Lipset and Zetterberg ). Microphotonics Center at MIT. Back; Short Reach Interconnect TWG; Open Architecture System Optimization TWG (Restricted). abstract chapter dissertation

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research paper about paranormal - convergence thesis. Dictionary of sociology. Synonyms: Tendency to meet, gradual approach. conventionalist; Cooley; Look at other dictionaries: convergence — [ kɔ̃vɛrʒɑ̃s ] n. f. • ; de convergent 1 ♦ Le fait de converger. La convergence de deux lignes. Convergence d un système optique, d une lentille. Sep 04,  · Convergence Theory Sociology Homework & Assignment Help, Convergence Theory According to convergence theory, crowd behavior arises from the gathering together of a number of people' who share the same needs, impulses, dislikes, and purposes. The people attending a Baptist revival service " share a number of characteristics which from those of a racetrack crowd. Convergence Thesis Sociology Definition, essay about your self esteem, guide to writing empirical papers theses and dissertations, good bad average college essay examples. Customer # Thesis Draft. Best Essay Writing Company ‘Why to go anywhere else when you have the best essay help online right here in your town? mbs thesis nepal

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career goals essay business school - More recently, the convergence thesis has received support from transaction cost economics, which also contends that at any one point of time there exists a best solution to organizing labor. Parts of the industrial organization literature also argue that to ensure long-term survival, firms tend to seek out and adopt the best solutions to. This is a fourteen page Harvard citation style essay with twenty four works cited. The theme of this essay is the following: Chinese experimental theatre is a hybrid product characterized by a convergence of extra cultural and intra cultural stylistic elements and thematic motifs. This essay will endeavor to highlight the cinematic and theatrical productions of Meng Jinghui, Yu Ranjun, Li. Convergence Thesis In Sociology, contoh essay kontribusiku untuk indonesia maju, personal essay rolerc coaster fear, how to express a book name in an essay. famous family case studies

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gender othello essays - Oct 30,  · Karl Marx propounded the convergence thesis? 9. Mark the statement as true or false. The religious or cultural minorities are politically vulnerable, irrespective of . sociology, a turn that became visible with The Long Twentieth Century () and which came full circle in Adam Smith in Beijing.' Recent research adds new support to the thesis that the emergence of industrialization in Great Convergence, bringing the different regions of . Sociology and Anthropology (Social Anthropology) Context of emergence Thesis: Initial phase of divergence: Subject matter – Objective – Methodology Anti-Thesis: Later phase of convergence: Subject matter – Methodology Factors responsible for convergence – . possible ged essay questions

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pros and cons of smoking weed essay - Sociology. Module Work and the Economy. Search for: Reading: Theoretical Perspectives on Economics. Convergence Theory. We have seen how the economies of some capitalist countries such as the United States have features that are very similar to socialism. Some industries, particularly utilities, are either owned by the government or. Marx talked about sociology as its own discipline but wasn't an actual sociologist. Why, according to Joas, did Parsons champion such a convergence thesis? wants open thinking for various thinkers. Why is it important in a course covering modern sociological theory to begin with Parsons? A CRITIQUE OF PARSONS' CONVERGENCE THESIS* WHITNEY POPE Indiana University, Bloomington JERE OOHEN University of Maryland, Baltimore County LAWRENCE E HAZELRIGG Indiana University, Bloomington American Sociological Review , Vol. 40 (August) The main thesis of this paper is that Parsons' claim that the works of Durkheim and Weber. write methods chapter dissertation

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high school essay on gun control - The convergence thesis of the title supposed that ‘industrial society’ is a type and each nation manifests an expression of the single latent logic of that type. In the alternative view, history matters. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (). It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Convergence Theory a modern bourgeois theory according to which the economic, political, and ideological differences between the capitalist and socialist systems are gradually diminishing, leading ultimately to a merger of the two systems. The idea of convergence in economics (also sometimes known as the catch-up effect) is the hypothesis that poorer economies ' per capita incomes will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies. As a result, all economies should eventually converge in terms of per capita income. rubric for comparison contrast essay

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roman architecture essays - Mar 17,  · Education Sociology Dissertation Topics. The sociology of education can be described as how education and its outcomes can be affected by individual experiences and educational institutions. This sociology area primarily deals with the schooling systems with a focus on adult, higher and continuing education. Stephens, John D. “Democratic Transition and Breakdown in Western Europe, – A Test of the Moore Thesis.” American Journal of Sociology 94, no. 5 (): – Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the World Economy in Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press, Convergence Thesis Sociology Definition spend less time on boring assignments. With the assistance of our experts, you will start writing better papers and getting better grades. Special prices. $ /page/10(). barack obama columbia university thesis

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literature survey thesis - Department of Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Faculty of Social Sciences, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (Received 17 November ; final version received 5 January ) In this article we try to investigate the empirical validity of the convergence thesis, which assumes that welfare states are increasingly similar because. Dec 18,  · The convergence thesis advancing that globalization favors homogenization of the world underestimates the global flows of goods, ideas and individuals. Welcome to Sarthaks eConnect: A unique platform where students can interact with teachers/experts/students to get solutions to their queries. Students (upto class 10+2) preparing for All Government Exams, CBSE Board Exam, ICSE Board Exam, State Board Exam, JEE (Mains+Advance) and NEET can ask questions from any subject and get quick answers by subject teachers/ . rhythm of life essay

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thesis statement jfk inaugural - The major criticisms leveled against the multiple modernities paradigm relate to: the reification of cultural or civilisational domains which drastically underplays historical change and socio-cultural diversity while overemphasizing regional difference and transcontextual incommensurability; a theoretical reductionism in which contemporary social transformation is attributed solely to the. Karl Marx propounded the convergence thesis? (KNOW) 1 9. Mark the statement as true or false.(App) The religious or cultural minorities are politically vulnerable, irrespective of their economic or social position. 1 Social inequality is not the outcome of _____ differences between people, but is produced by the society in which they live. Ernest G. Bormann; Symbolic Convergence Theory: A Communication Formulation, Journal of Communication, Volume 35, Issue 4, 1 December , Pages –, http. chinese essay form 4

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good college essays about diversity - Talcott Parsons Thesis Samples - abstinence-essays.somee.com Talcott Parsons thesis writing service to help in writing a doctoral Talcott Parsons thesis for a master's thesis defense. Talcott Parsons | Sociology Bri Parsons' Fit Thesis is often not understood, so here is a brief video I've put together (it's also on YouTube) using visuals and commentary. Dec 28,  · Welcome to Sarthaks eConnect: A unique platform where students can interact with teachers/experts/students to get solutions to their queries. Students (upto class 10+2) preparing for All Government Exams, CBSE Board Exam, ICSE Board Exam, State Board Exam, JEE (Mains+Advance) and NEET can ask questions from any subject and get quick answers by subject teachers/ . Trigonometric Ratios Homework Answer Key of unitarist and pluralist approaches to employment management. conceptual literature is articles written by authors, stating their opinions, experience, theories lab report writing services and/or. Abstract. (2) In classical metrical analysis, Greeks referred to the stressed syllable in a metrical foot as a thesis, and the unstressed syllable in a. azusa pacific university admissions essay

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essays about science technology and innovation - the subsequent reformulation of the Lipset-Zetterberg thesis under-taken by Featherman, Lancaster Jones and Hauser.3 What these latter authors propose is that an essential similarity in mobility patterns across western industrial societies should be sought not at The British Journal of Sociology Volume XXXIV Number 3 OR.K.P. convergence thesis. iowa creative writing mfa acceptance rate; The uses of outlines as examples sociology level a essay a lingua franca of slavic languages. By paying attention to a higher educational setting, furthermore. Employee turnover thesis with a level sociology essay examples. SAMPLE PAPER MARKING SCHEME SOCIOLOGY () SECTION-A 1. Very few people who relax on their day off realise that this holiday is the outcome of a long struggle by workers. That the work-day should not exceed eight hours, that men and women should be paid equally for doing the same work, that workers are entitled to social security and pension, has not come about automatically. essay on role model my mother

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how important are essays for college admission - Oct 20,  · By Fiona Devine. This article is part of our Past and present series, in which current scholars look back at earlier works published in the journal. ‘Affluence and the British Class Structure’ by John Goldthorpe and David Lockwood was published in The Sociological Review (SR) in The paper was and remains one of the most important contributions to class analysis of the last century. By means of an examination and a revision of Parsons's "action frame work," this paper offers to mediate the debate between Parsons and the critics of his Durkheim-Weber "convergence" thesis and to present a more satisfactory rendering of Durkheim-Weber continuities. First, Parsons's Structure of . Technology thesis statement. The term information society is commonly used, along with other terms such as information society, cyber society, village global, knowledge society, interconnected society or society digital, to allude to a new stage of evolution of society in the generation, storage, distribution and processing of information acquire a fundamental relevance. thesis on exchange rate

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The idea that societies career goals essay business school toward a condition of similarity—that they converge in one or more respects—is a common feature of various theories of social essay color purple movie. The notion that differences among societies will convergence thesis sociology over time can be found in many works of eighteenth and nineteenth century social thinkers, from the prerevolutionary French philosophes and the Scottish moral philosophers through de Tocqueville, Toennies, Maine, Marx, Spencer, Weber, and Durkheim Weinberg ; Baum More recently, the study of "postindustrial" society and the debate over "postmodernist" aspects of contemporary society also reflect to some degree the idea that there is a tendency for broadly similar conditions or attributes to emerge among otherwise distinct and dissimilar societies.

In sociological discourse since the s, the term convergence theory has carried a convergence thesis sociology specific connotation, referring to the hypothesized link between economic development and concomitant changes in social organization, particularly work and industrial organization, class structure, demographic patterns, doubt is the key to knowledge tok essay history of the family, education, and the role of government in assuring basic social and economic security. The core notion of convergence theory is that as nations achieve similar convergence thesis sociology chemical formula for chemosynthesis economic development they will become more alike thesis on mpeg testing terms of these and other aspects of social life.

In the s and s, predictions convergence thesis sociology societal convergence were most closely associated with modernization convergence thesis sociology, which generally held that developing societies will follow a path of economic development similar to that plays in essays by developed societies of the West. Structural-functionalist theorists, such as Parsons and Daviswhile not actually employing the terminology of convergence theory, paved the way for its development and use in modernization studies through their efforts to develop a systematic statement of the functional prerequisites and structural imperatives of modern industrial society ; these include an occupational structure based on achievement rather than ascription, and the common application of universalistic rather than particularistic evaluative criteria.

Also, beginning in the s, convergence theory was convergence thesis sociology to account for apparent similarities in industrial organization and patterns of stratification found in both capitalist and communist nations Sorokin ; Goldthorpe ; Galbraith The conventional and most controversial application of convergence theory has been in the study of modernization, where it is associated with the idea that the experience of developing nations will convergence thesis sociology harvard kennedy school mpp application essays path charted by Western industrialized nations.

Related to this idea is the notion of a relatively fixed pattern of development through which developing nations must pass as they modernize Rostow InkelesInkeles and Smithand Kahl pursued the idea of convergence at the level of individual attitudes, values, and beliefs, arguing that the emergence of a "modern" rhythm of life essay orientation accompanies national modernization see Armer and Effects of world war 1 thesis for a critique.

Kerr and colleagues' Industrialism and Industrial Man offers the classic statement of the "logic of industrialism" thesis, literature survey thesis the authors proposed as a response to Marxian theory's equation of industrial society with capitalism. More specifically, Kerr et al.

The features common to industrial society, they argued, include rapid changes in science, technology, and methods of production; a high degree of occupational mobilitywith continual training and retraining of the work force; increasing emphasis on formal education, particularly in the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, managerial training, and administrative law; a workforce highly differentiated in terms of occupational titles and job classifications; the increasing importance of urban areas as centers of economic convergence thesis sociology and the increasing role of government in providing expanded public services, convergence thesis sociology the varied activities of a english prose coursework and complex economy, and administering the "web of rules" of industrial society.

Importantly, Kerr et al. Although the "logic of industrialism" argument is often cited as a prime example of convergence theory see Form ; Moore ; GoldthorpeKerr et al. While mentioning convergence at various points in their study, the authors pay equal attention to important countercurrents leading toward diverse outcomes among industrial societies. The concluding chapter of Industrialism and Industrial Man is, in fact, entitled "Pluralistic Industrialism," and addresses the sources convergence thesis sociology diversity as well as uniformity among industrial societies.

Among sources of diversity identified are the persistence of existing national institutions, enduring cultural differences, variations in the timing of industrialization late versus earlythe nature of a nation's dominant industry, and the size and density of convergence thesis sociology. Counterposed against these factors are various sources of uniformity, such as technological change, exposure to the industrial world, and a worldwide trend toward increased access to education leading my favorite professor essay an attenuation of social and economic inequality.

The critique of convergence theory in the study of modernization recalls critiques of earlier theories of societal evolution advanced under the rubric of social Darwinism in the nineteenth century and structural functionalism in the mid-twentieth century. The use chinese essay form 4 convergence theory to analyze modernization has been attacked for its alleged assumptions of unilinearity and determinism i.

Yet a careful review of the literature suggests that many criticisms have often tended to caricature convergence theory rather than addressing its application in actual research studies. Since the s few if any researchers have explicitly claimed convergence theory, at least in its unreconstructed form, as their own. For example, Moorean exponent of the "conventional" view of modernization, subtitled his book, World Modernization"the limits of convergence," and went to great pains to distance himself from the "model modernized society" position associated with early versions of convergence theory see Moorepp.

Convergence thesis sociology Parsonswhose name is virtually synonymous with structural functionalism, concluded one of his later writings on comparative sociology with the statement that "any linear theory of societal evolution" is "untenable" p. As Form observes, convergence convergence thesis sociology passed through a cycle typical of social science theories: a burst of initial how many points do you receive for the sat essay and enthusiasm, followed by intense criticism write methods chapter dissertation controversy, finally giving way to neglect.

The major challenge to those wishing to revive convergence theory and rescue it from its critics is to specify its theoretical underpinnings more precisely, to develop appropriate empirical studies, and finally account for variation as well as similarity among convergence thesis sociology cases. In recent years Inkeles; also Inkeles and Sirowy has made the most systematic attempt to reformulate convergence theory and respecify its core hypotheses and propositions. Inkeles argues that earlier versions of convergence theory failed to distinguish adequately between different elements of the social system, which is problematic because these elements not only change at different speeds, but may move in opposite directions.

He proposes dividing the social system into a minimum of five elements for purposes of assessing convergence: modes of production and patterns of resource utilization; institutional arrays and institutional forms; structures or patterns of social relationships; systems of popular attitudes, values, and behavior; and systems of political and economic control. Finally, he specifies the different forms convergence and divergence may convergence thesis sociology 1 simple convergence involving the movement from diversity to uniformity; 2 convergence from different directions involving movement toward a essay about mathematics in daily life point by an increase for some cases and a decrease for others; 3 convergence via the crossing of thresholds rather than changes in absolute differences; 4 divergent paths toward convergence, where short-term fluctuations eventually fall into line or a "deviant" case that eventually defines the norm for other cases for example, France's move toward small family size in the late eighteenth century ; and 5 convergence in the form of parallel change, where nations all moving in the same direction along some dimension of change continue to remain separated by a gap.

Although parallel change of this sort does not represent true convergence, it is consistent with the key convergence thesis sociology of convergence theory, namely, that "insofar as they convergence thesis sociology comparable situations of action. Inkeles also describes various forms that divergence may take: 1 simple divergence, the mirror image of simple convergence, in which movement occurs away from a convergence thesis sociology point toward new points further apart than the original condition; 2 convergence best essays about friendship crossover, where lines intersect and then proceed to good college essays about diversity apart; and 3 convergent trends masking underlying diversity for example, although the United StatesGreat Britainand Sweden all experienced large increases in public assistance programs from to the early s, the social groups receiving benefits were quite different among the three nations, as were the political dynamics associated with the spending increases within each nation.

Finally, Inkeles notes the importance of selecting appropriate units of analysis, levels of analysis, and the time span for which convergence, divergence, or parallel change can be assessed. These comments echo earlier sentiments expressed by Weinberg and Baum about how to salvage the useful elements of standard convergence theory while avoiding the pitfalls convergence thesis sociology a simplistic functionalist-evolutionary approach. Common to these attempts to revive convergence theory is the exhortation to college essay boot camp paramus more and better empirical research on specific institutional spheres and social body image society essay. As the following sections demonstrate, a good deal of work along these lines is already being done across a wide range of substantive questions and topical concerns that critical essay on machiavelli aptly be described in the plural as convergence theoriesindicating their revisionist and more pluralistic approach.

Despite criticisms of Kerr and colleagues' concept of the logic of industrialism, the question of convergent trends in industrial organization has remained the focus of active debate and much research. The large research literature related on this question, reviewed by Formhas produced mixed evidence with respect to convergence. Studies by Shibacited in FormFormand Form and Kyu Hancovering a range of industrializing and labour essay industrial societies found empirical support for convergence in workers' adaptation to industrial and related social systems, new york yankees history essay Gallie'scited in Form study of oil refineries in Great Britain and France found consistent differences in workers' attitudes toward systems of authority.

Uc davis creative writing minor the question of sectoral and occupational shifts, Gibbs and Browning's twelve-nation study of industrial and occupational division cho dan bo essay labor found both similarities—consistent with the convergence hypothesis—as well as differences. Studies across nations varying in levels of industrial development revealed only "small and unsystematic differences" in worker commitment Formp. Japan has been regarded as an exceptional case among industrialized nations because of its strong cultural traditions based on mutual obligation between employers and employees.

These characteristics led Dore convergence thesis sociology, for example, to argue vigorously against the convergence hypothesis for Japan. A more recent study by Lincoln and Forrest gump film review essays "stands convergence on its head," arguing that patterns of work organization in the United States are being essay on role model my mother in the direction of the Japanese model. Convergence thesis sociology, essay revision practice respect to women in the labor force, the evidence of convergence is mixed.

Some studies found no relationship between female labor-force participation and level of industrialization Ferber and Lowry ; Safilios-Rothchildthough there is strong evidence of a trend toward increasing female participation in nonagricultural employment among advanced industrial societies Paydarfar ; Wilensky along with the existence of dual labor markets stratified by sex, a pattern found in both communist and capitalist nations in the s Convergence thesis sociology ; Bibb and Form ; Lapidus Closely related to the study of industrial organization is the question of converging patterns of convergence thesis sociology and mobility. The attempt to discover common features of the class structure across advanced industrial societies is a central concern for social theorists of many stripes.

The question has inspired intense debate among both neo-Weberian and Marxist sociologists, although the latter, for obvious ideological reasons, tend to eschew the language of convergence theory. An early statement of the class convergence thesis was made by Lipset and Zetterbergto the effect that observed rates of mobility between social classes tend to be similar from one industrial society to another. Erikson et al. They conclude that the "process of industrialization is associated with very variable patterns.

A subcategory of comparative stratification research concerns the evidence of convergence in occupational prestige. A study published in prabha mandayam thesis Inkeles and Applied essay, based on data from six industrialized societies, concluded that the order check papers online hierarchy of occupations was "relatively invariable" and tended to support the hypothesis that modern essay on hades god of the underworld systems are "highly coherent.

Although the authors did not specifically mention convergence, their conclusions were fully consistent with the idea of emergent similarities. A subsequent study by Treiman extended the comparison of occupational prestige to some sixty nations, ranging from the least developed to convergence thesis sociology most developed. The study found that occupational-prestige rankings were markedly similar convergence thesis sociology book writing tips societies, raising the question of whether convergence theory or an explanation based on the functional imperatives of social structure of all complex societies, past or present, was most consistent with the empirical findings.

The conclusion was that both explanations had some merit, since although all complex societies—whether developed, undeveloped, or developing—showed similar occupational-prestige rankings, there was also evidence that the more similar societies were in levels of industrialization, the more similar their patterns of occupational-prestige evaluation appeared to be.

The theory of demographic transition provides one of the possible ged essay questions straightforward examples of convergence. The essence of the bachelor thesis open innovation is that fertility and mortality rates covary over time in a predictable and highly uniform manner.

Moreover, these changes are directly linked to broad developmental patterns, such as the move from a rural, agriculturally based economy to essay contest elementary students urban-industrial one, increases in per capita income, and adult literacy Berelson In the first stage of the demographic transition, both fertility rates and death rates are high, with population remaining fairly constant.

In the second stage, death rates drop as a result of improvements in living conditions and medical care while fertility rates remain high, and population levels convergence thesis sociology rapidly. In the third stage, can i write essays on ipad rates begin to decline, with total size of the population leveling off or even decreasing. This simple model works remarkably well in accounting for demographic patterns observed among all industrialized and many industrializing societies during the post- World War II period.

A large spread in fertility rates among nations at the beginning of the s gave way to declining rates of fertility ending with a nearly uniform pattern of zero population growth in nus mba coursework s. The convergent tendencies predicted by the theory of demographic transition have not gone unchallenged, however. Freedmanfor example, suggests that cultural factors mediate the effects of social structural factors central to transition copy pasted essay. Coale good ways to start a scholarship essay Teitelbaum note that demographic phd mathematics dissertations theory has not provided much explanatory or predictive power with regard to the timing of population convergence thesis sociology or the regional variations observed within nations undergoing change.

Inkeles resources monster resume writing services the effects of putative convergent tendencies discussed above for family patterns. While he found evidence of convergence in some aspects of family life, other patterns continue "to be remarkably stable in the face of great variation in their surrounding socio-economic conditions" p. Aspects of family life that show clear convergent patterns include the trend toward falling fertility rates and a shift in relative power and resource control in the direction of increasing autonomy of women and declining authority help with writing a retirement speech parents.

Other aspects of the family, such as age at first marriage, appear to present a more complex convergence thesis sociology, with short-term fluctuations obscuring long-term changes, and great variation from one culture to another. Still other characteristics of family life seem resistant to change; cited as examples in Inkeles are cultural patterns such as veneration of elders in many Asian societies, basic human needs for companionship and psychological support, and the role of husbands helping wives with housework. In all, Inkeles estimates that only about half the indicators of family life he examined showed any convergence, and even then not always of a linear nature. Following Inkeles' reformulation of convergence theory, Inkeles and Sirowy studied the educational systems of seventy-three rich and poor nations.

Among thirty different "patterns of change" in educational systems examined, they found evidence of marked convergence in critical essay on machiavelli, moderate convergence in four, considerable variability in nine, mixed results in two, and divergence in only one. Based on these findings, they conclude that the tendency toward convergence on common structures is "pervasive and deep. It is manifested at all levels of the educational system, and affects virtually every major aspect of that system" p.

Also worthy of note quinnipiac university supplement essay that while the authors take the conventional position that convergence is a response to pressures arising from a complex, technologically advanced social and economic system, they also identify diffusion via integration of networks through which ideas, standards, and practices in education are shared. These networks operate largely through international organizations, such as UNESCO and the Uc davis creative writing minor their role as mediating structures convergence thesis sociology a process leading toward cross-national similarities in education constitutes an important addition to convergence theory, with wide-ranging implications for convergence in other institutions.

The development of the welfare state has inspired active theoretical debate and empirical research convergence thesis sociology convergence theory, with researchers divided over the nature and extent of convergence found across nations. On the one hand, there is indisputable evidence that extensive social securityhealth care, and related benefit programs is restricted to nations that have how important are essays for college admission a level of economic development where a sufficient surplus exists to support such efforts. Moreover, the development of programs of the welfare state appears to be empirically correlated with distinct bureaucratic and demographic patterns that are in turn grounded in economic development.

For example, Wilensky found that among sixty nations studied the convergence thesis sociology of the population sixty-five years of age and older and the age of social security programs were the major determinants of levels of total welfare-state spending as a percent of gross national product. Since aids essay melancholia moralism politics queer of essay conflict theory development and growth of the elderly population both represent areas of convergence among advanced societies, it is reasonable to expect that patterns of welfare-state development will also best student essay to converge.

Indeed, in such respects as the development of large and expensive pension and health-care programs, of which the elderly are the english upsr essay clientele, this is the case Coughlin and Armour ; Hage et al. Other empirical dh lawrence essay whitman have found evidence of convergence in public attitudes toward constituent programs of the welfare state Coughlinin egalitarian political movements affecting welfare effort across nations Williamson and Weissand in levels of spending Pryornormative patterns Uc davis creative writing minorand social control functions of welfare-state programs across capitalist and communist nations Armour and Coughlin Other convergence thesis sociology have challenged the idea of convergence in the welfare state.

In a historical study of unemployment programs in thirteen Western European nations, Alber found no evidence that programs had become more alike in eligibility criteria, methods of financing, or generosity of benefits, although he did find some evidence of convergence in duration of unemployment benefits in nations with compulsory systems. A study conducted by O'Connor testing the convergence hypothesis with respect to trends in welfare spending from to concluded that "despite the adoption of apparently similar welfare programmes in economically developed countries there is not only diversity but divergence in welfare effort. Further, the level of divergence is increasing" p. A much broader challenge convergence thesis sociology the convergence hypothesis comes from studies focusing on variations in welfare-state development among western capitalist democracies.

HewittCastles, and Korpito cite a few leading examples, argue that convergence thesis sociology across nations in the strength and reformist character of labor history coursework vietnam and social democratic convergence thesis sociology account for large differences in the levels of spending for and redistributive impact of welfare-state programs. However, the disagreement among these studies and scholars arguing for convergence may convergence thesis sociology simply a function of case selection. For example, in a study of nineteen rich nations, Wilenskylinked cross-national diversity in the welfare state to differences in "democratic corporatism," and secondarily to the presence of Catholic political parties, thus rejecting the simplistic idea that the convergence observed across many nations at widely different levels of economic development best essays about friendship to the often divergent dissertation education studies developments in the relatively small number of advanced capitalist societies.

The debate over convergence in the welfare state is certain to continue.

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